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Geoeconomic Leaders Among the Three Seas Initiative Countries. Part 2: Research Results


[ 1 ] Instytut Studiów Strategicznych, Wydział Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego, Akademia Sztuki Wojennej | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[5.3] Security studies

Year of publication


Published in

European Research Studies Journal

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. XXV | Journal number: issue 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Badania naukowe
  • Bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe
  • Geoekonomia
  • Geopolityka
  • Inicjatywa Trójmorza
  • Polityka międzynarodowa
  • Siła państwa
  • Economy
  • Geoeconomics
  • Geopolitics
  • International policy
  • International security
  • Three Seas Initiative (3SI)

EN Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the results of research on economic and social indicators that are considered by theorists of geoeconomics as tools that can be used to measure the geoeconomic position of countries. The research refers to Edward Luttwak’s, Joseph Nye’s, and Carlo Jean’s concepts of geoeconomics. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is an attempt to build an analytical framework for measuring the potential of the countries of the Three Seas Initiative (3SI) by combining theoretical foundations of geoeconomics with practical indicators. The research questions that guided the overall analysis were: What indicators can be used to assess the geoeconomic position of the countries and their security? What are the values of the geoeconomic indicators? Which countries are the geoeconomics leaders in the region? Findings: Poland, Estonia, and Austria are the geoeconomic leaders among the 3SI countries. Their high position among the countries of the region is the result of various factors. For example Poland's top position is a result of, among other things, its stable economic growth, relatively small decline since the pandemic, high increase of the GDP per capita, moderate increase of the HDI, high military spending, and position in global business rankings. Estonia was among the best countries in each of the examined indicators related to the GDP and business, and was one of the leaders in investment and R&D and military spending. Austria was ranked as the third geoeconomic leader due to its highest HDI and its growth, the highest humanitarian relief, the lowest FSI, good results in R&D spending and in global entrepreneurship. Practical implications: An analysis of geoeconomic indicators of states makes it possible to draw conclusions about their multidimensional security, including economic security, the possibility to achieve their individual goals, and the common priorities of the initiative. Originality/Value: Original research.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

113 - 132



JEL classification: Security issues.

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Release date


Points of MNiSW / journal