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Bureaucratic policy and defense cooperation among the Baltic states


[ 1 ] Doctoral programme, Rīga Stradiņš University | [ 2 ] Baltic Security Foundation, Sapieru

Year of publication


Published in

Security and Defence Quarterly

Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 37 | Journal number: no. 1

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Estonia
  • Lithuania
  • Latvia
  • National security
  • Security policy
  • Security strategy

EN The objectives of this paper are to (1) comparatively analyse defence strategies of the Baltic countries against the theory of institutionalism, focusing on factors that affect policy maintenance or change within defence cooperation and (2) assess the current state of defence cooperation in the Baltic countries. The study gives a theoretical overview, relating the theory of new institutionalism to the subject of debate over bureaucratic institutions, which also plays a role in the regional security politics of the Baltic countries. An empirical study compares the defence strategies of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. While few studies have investigated this subject before, that the conclusion reached by this investigation is that administrative bodies in the defence sector of the Baltic countries are affected by politically driven processes pertaining to the foreign affairs domain, which play a key role in matters related to cooperation and synchronisation of the defence and security of the Baltic States. The findings suggest that a more focused analysis of the role of institutions and bureaucratic policy in the policy making of the three Baltic countries needs to take place. The study concludes that (1) the current state of defence cooperation in the Baltic countries can be called “developing”; (2) the operation of defence establishments can be called “path dependent”, which is mainly influenced by “external” factors or pressures.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

41 - 54




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

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