Processing may take a few seconds...



Causal Linkage among Agricultural Insurance, Air Pollution, and Agricultural Green Total Factor Productivity in United States: Pairwise Granger Causality Approach


[ 1 ] College of Economics & Management, Northwest Agricultural & Forestry University, Xianyang 712100, China | [ 2 ] Department of Management Sciences, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), Pakistan | [ 3 ] Department of Finance and Economics, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Pakistan | [ 4 ] Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Pakistan | [ 5 ] School of Business, Zhengzhou University, China | [ 6 ] Faculty of Social Sciences, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland | [ 7 ] Instytut Zarządzania, Wydział Zarządzania i Dowodzenia, Akademia Sztuki Wojennej | [ 8 ] Department of Economics and Economic Polity in Agribusiness, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland | [ 9 ] Institute of Journalism and Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[5.6] Management and quality studies

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: volume 12 | Journal number: issue 9

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Agricultural green total factor productivity
  • Agricultural insurance
  • Air pollution
  • Panel auto-regressive distributed lags method
  • United States
  • Polityka rolna
  • Rolnictwo ekologiczne
  • Ubezpieczenia rolnicze
  • Zanieczyszczenie powietrza
  • Stany Zjednoczone (USA)

EN Agricultural insurance and green agriculture are strongly related. Agricultural insurance not only motivates farmers to adopt environmentally friendly production technology and enhances the effectiveness of production, but it also accomplishes the goal of lowering the number of chemicals that are put into the environment. This article investigates the dynamic relationship between agricultural insurance, air pollution, and agricultural green total factor productivity. To complete the aim, the authors used the panel auto-regressive distributed lags method (PMG method) and panel data from 50 states of the United States between 2005 and 2019. The empirical findings demonstrate a considerable co-integration and a cross-sectional reliance between agricultural insurance, air pollution, and agricultural green total factor production. Expanding agricultural insurance may boost agricultural green whole factor output but also exacerbate air pollution. However, significant air pollution does not increase agricultural production’s green total factor productivity. The panel Granger causality test shows a one-way causal relationship between agricultural insurance, green total factor productivity, and air pollution. A one-way causal relationship exists between air pollution and agricultural green total factor productivity. The author concluded that improving agricultural insurance coverage or cutting down on air pollution will boost agricultural green total factor output. These findings have long-term policy and management repercussions, particularly for those involved in agriculture policy and environmental management.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

1 - 17




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Release date


Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Points of MNiSW / journal


Impact Factor

3.408 [List 2021]