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Tests of Acid Batteries for Hybrid Energy Storage and Buffering System : A Technical Approach


[ 1 ] Military Institute of Engineer Technology, Wrocław | [ 2 ] Faculty of Medical and Technical Sciences, The Karkonosze University of Applied Sciences, Jelenia Góra | [ 3 ] Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, Kielce | [ 4 ] Instytut Wsparcia i Zabezpieczenia Działań, Wydział Wojskowy, Akademia Sztuki Wojennej | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[5.3] Security studies

Year of publication


Published in


Journal year: 2022 | Journal volume: vol. 15 | Journal number: issue 10

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Armed Forces
  • Energy harvesting
  • Energy storage
  • Lead-acid battery
  • Solar energy
  • Technology
  • Akumulator ołowiowo-kwasowy
  • Energetyka słoneczna
  • Magazynowanie energii elektrycznej
  • Odnawialne źródła energii
  • Technologia
  • Wojsko

EN Many armies around the world showed an increasing interest for the technology of renewable energy sources for military applications. However, to profit fully from solar or wind energy, an energy storage system is needed. In this article, we present an energy storage system based on acid-lead batteries as a component of a modular generation-storage as a model of military “smart camp”. We proposed a technical approach to study four different types of batteries: DEEP CYCLE, AGM, WET and VRLA in laboratory and real conditions typical for military equipment. It was observed that the best performance was observed for AGM battery in terms of the highest cold cracking amperage equal to 1205 A combined with the most compact construction and resistance to varying thermal conditions from −25 °C, 25 °C and 50 °C. Additionally, a 12-month long-term testing in real conditions revealed that AGM and VRLA showed decrease in capacity value maintaining only approx. 80% of initial value.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

1 - 10




License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Release date

11.05.2022 (Date presumed)

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Points of MNiSW / journal


Impact Factor

3.252 [List 2021]