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Engagement of Executive Outcomes in Sierra Leone : utility assessment


[ 1 ] Wydział Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego, Akademia Sztuki Wojennej | [ D ] phd student

Year of publication


Published in

Security and Defence Quarterly

Journal year: 2019 | Journal volume: vol. 27 | Journal number: no 5

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • Private Military Company (PMC)

EN Objectives: The article explores combat related Private Military Companies (PMCs) that are authorised to engage in the forefront of the battlefield as dedicated force multipliers. Methods: To supplement empirical data with qualitative observation, the methodology applies the case study and observation method. Considering assistance in conflict termination as a dependent variable, the methodology evaluates the case study of Executive Outcomes in Sierra Leone and, to impose a framework for observation, deconstructs that case with seven independent variables: competence, effectiveness, flexibility, field cooperation with conventional forces, cost efficiency, impact on military and the state-to-PMC balance. Results: The methodology indicates what factors were prevalent in effective conflict management and what indicators entailed chal- lenges. The results advocate for the competence, flexibility, effectiveness and cooperation with armed forces to be deemed conclusive in positive PMC engagement, whereas the cost efficiency, impact on conventional military and the state-to-PMC balance require improvement. Conclusions: Since governments have continued to be hesitant (justified either by financial, geopolitical or social incen- tives) towards overseas military operations where asymmetric warfare is taking place, PMCs stepped in to fill the se- curity void. Therefore, this paper argues that PMCs are here to stay; however, the literature hasn’t rigorously ex- plored the subject matter to determine whether indicators of success and failure exist to evaluate the PMC outcome. This paper also precipitates natural outgrowth in the scholarship by composing the benchmark that synthesises relevant data.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

57 - 71





Bibliografia, netografia na stronach 69-71.

License type

CC BY-NC-ND (attribution - noncommercial - no derivatives)

Open Access Mode

open journal

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Ministry points / journal


Ministry points / journal in years 2017-2021


Publication indexed in

CEJSH | Index Copernicus