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The Political and Military Aspects of Creating Anti-Access/Area-Denial Systems (A2/AD) : The Example Of China and Russia


[ 1 ] Instytut Wsparcia i Zabezpieczenia Działań, Wydział Wojskowy, Akademia Sztuki Wojennej | [ P ] employee

Scientific discipline (Law 2.0)

[6.3] Security studies

Year of publication


Published in

Safety & Defense

Journal year: 2021 | Journal volume: vol. 7 | Journal number: no. 2

Article type

scientific article

Publication language


  • A2/AD (Anti-Access/Area Denial)
  • Air defence
  • Defensive strategy
  • International security
  • Operations
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • China
  • Russian Federation
  • Bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe
  • Działania operacyjne
  • Koncepcja antydostępu i wzbraniania (A2/AD)
  • Obrona powietrzna
  • Polityka bezpieczeństwa
  • Strategia obronna
  • NATO
  • Chiny
  • Rosja

EN Over the last two decades China and Russia have been developing Anti-Access/Area-Denial (A2/AD) systems mainly based on long-range Air Defense, ballistic and cruise missiles, supported with Electronic Warfare and cyber-attack capabilities. Ini-tially, these systems were used for defense purposes, but over the time it was recognized they could be also applied for imposing military situation in the specific regions and cre-ate effective response to NATO countries and their concept of conducting military opera-tions. The main aim of article is to asses and to present the impact of Chinese and Rus-sian Anti-Access/Area-Denial (A2/AD) systems on changes on global political relations and balance of military power. In the course of this studies the author used numerous analyzes, synthesis, comparisons and case studies methods mainly concentrated on presently operating A2/AD systems. This article undertakes the analysis of the Chinese bases located in the South China Sea and Djibouti, Russian A2/AD systems within Rus-sia's borders with particular emphasis on Kaliningrad Oblast, and A2/AD systems in Crimea and Syria created as part of Russian military operations. All this researches al-lowed to conclude that some of the A2/AD systems serve to defend borders, while the rest are created to influence the geopolitical and military situation or to gain an ad-vantage in the area of military operations. It can be also evaluate that the use of these systems allow dominate future conflicts because they enable to establish a full control zones which are completely closed for opponents forces operations.

Date of online publication


Pages (from - to)

22 - 39





Bibliografia na stronach 38-39.

Copyrights to the institution

Akademia Sztuki Wojennej

License type

CC BY (attribution alone)

Open Access Mode

publisher's website

Open Access Text Version

final published version

Release date

20.10.2021 (Date presumed)

Date of Open Access to the publication

at the time of publication

Ministry points / journal


Ministry points / journal in years 2017-2021